The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities recognizes that disability arises from the combination of impairments and barriers that "hinder full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others". The impairments can include "long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments" whilst the barriers can be attitudinal or environmental. Disability has long been regarded as a social issue, requiring social responses. A person with disability may need assistance - formal or informal - to fully participate in society.
While acknowledging that the initiative of the State in the past have not had a significant impact either in prevention of disabilities or in early intervention and rehabilitation the Kerala State Government has
“Thalolam” intended to provide free treatment to the children below age of 18, who are suffering from Kidney diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Cerebral Palsy, Brittle Bone Disease, Hemophilia, Thalassemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Orthopedic deformities and other Neuro- Developmental Disabilities, Congenital anomalies ( Endosulfan victims) and accident cases which needs surgery. This scheme has come into effect from 01-01-2010 onwards.